Project 954: Evans, S.E., J.R. Groenke, M.E.H. Jones, A.H. Turner, D.W. Krause. 2014. New material of Beelzebufo, a hyperossified frog (Amphibia: Anura) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. PLoS ONE. 9 (1).
Specimen: †Beelzebufo ampinga

Abstract

The extant anuran fauna of Madagascar is exceptionally rich and almost completely endemic. In recent years, many new species have been described and understanding of the history and relationships of this fauna has been greatly advanced by molecular studies, but very little is known of the fossil history of frogs on the island. Beelzebufo ampinga, the first named pre-Holocene frog from Madagascar, was described in 2008 on the basis of numerous disarticulated cranial and postcranial elements from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Maevarano Formation of Madagascar. These specimens documented the presence of a hyperossified taxon that differed strikingly from extant Malagasy frogs in its large size and heavy cranial exostosis. Here we describe and analyse new, articulated, and more complete material of the skull, vertebral column, and hind limb, as well as additional isolated elements discovered since 2008. μCT scans allow a detailed understanding of both internal and external morphology and permit a more accurate reconstruction. The new material shows Beelzebufo to have been even more bizarre than originally interpreted, with large posterolateral skull flanges and sculptured vertebral spine tables. The apparent absence of an external ear, the strong exostosis, and vertebral morphology suggest it may have burrowed during seasonally arid conditions, which have been interpreted for the Maevarano Formation from independent sedimentological and taphonomic evidence. New phylogenetic analyses, incorporating both morphological and molecular data, continue to place Beelzebufo with hyloid rather than ranoid frogs. Within Hyloidea, Beelzebufo still groups with the South American Ceratophryidae thus continuing to pose difficulties with both biogeographic interpretations and prior molecular divergence dates.


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Project DOI: 10.7934/P954, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P954
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 12 Documents
  • 83 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 75 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 6 MB
Total scored cells: 5273
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 75
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 183
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
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MorphoBank Project 954


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Alan Turner
Project Administrator
Last logged in 01/29/14
831175005273
(5165, 0, 108)
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Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M2133' (83 Taxa)

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[1] Alytes obstetricans
Last Modified in 12/05/13
0737302002
[2] †Arariphrynus placidoi
Last Modified in 12/05/13
46292900002
[3] Arthroleptis adolphifriederic
Last Modified in 12/05/13
0757500002
[4] Bombina variegata
Last Modified in 12/05/13
1737301002
[5] Ceratophrys ornata
Last Modified in 12/05/13
1727202002
[6] Chiromantis rufescens
Last Modified in 12/05/13
1747400002
[7] Conraua crassipes
Last Modified in 12/05/13
4717100002
[8] †Cratia gracilis
Last Modified in 12/05/13
54212100002
[9] Dermatonotus muelleri
Last Modified in 12/05/13
0727203002
[10] Discoglossus pictus
Last Modified in 12/05/13
1737301002
[11] †Eurycephalella alcinae
Last Modified in 12/05/13
49262600002
[12] Gastrotheca gracilis
Last Modified in 12/05/13
28474700002
[13] Guibemantis liber
Last Modified in 12/05/13
0757500002
[14] Heleophryne natalensis
Last Modified in 12/05/13
1737301002
[15] Hylarana albolabris
Last Modified in 12/05/13
1747400002
[16] Hyperolius kivuensis
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1747400002
[17] Hypsiboas andinus
Last Modified in 12/05/13
6686801002
[18] Lepidobatrachus laevis
Last Modified in 12/05/13
1727202002
[19] Leptodactylus ocellatus
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0747401002
[20] Leptopelis christyi
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1747400002
[21] Litoria lesueurii
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17585800002
[22] Megophrys nasuta
Last Modified in 12/05/13
8666601002
[23] Melanophryniscus stelzneri
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2707003002
[24] Mixophyes schevilli
Last Modified in 12/05/13
2727201002
[25] Nannophryne variegatus
Last Modified in 12/05/13
4676704002
[26] Pelobates cultripes
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2727201002
[27] Pelodytes punctatus
Last Modified in 12/05/13
1737301002
[28] Phlyctimantis verrucosus
Last Modified in 12/05/13
3727200002
[29] Phrynobatrachus acutirostris
Last Modified in 12/05/13
0757500002
[30] Phrynomantis bifasciatus
Last Modified in 12/05/13
0696906002
[31] Phyllomedusa sauvagii
Last Modified in 12/05/13
1717103002
[32] Platyplectrum ornatum
Last Modified in 12/05/13
2727201002
[33] Pleurodema thaul
Last Modified in 12/05/13
0737302002
[34] Pristimantis huicundo
Last Modified in 12/05/13
1727202002
[35] Ptychadena mascareniensis
Last Modified in 12/05/13
0747401002
[36] Rana temporaria
Last Modified in 12/05/13
2737300002
[37] Scaphiopus couchii
Last Modified in 12/05/13
2717102002
[38] Scinax jolyi
Last Modified in 12/05/13
5696901002
[39] Sooglossus sechellensis
Last Modified in 12/05/13
8666601002
[40] Telmatobius scrocchii
Last Modified in 12/05/13
2727201002
[41] Telmatobufo venustus
Last Modified in 12/05/13
2727201002
[42] Thoropa miliaris
Last Modified in 12/05/13
11636301002
[43] †Beelzebufo ampinga
Last Modified in 12/05/13
54212100002
[44] †Uberabatrachus carvalhoi
Last Modified in 12/05/13
50252500002
[45] Afrana angolensis
Last Modified in 12/05/13
7686800002
[46] Afrixalus fulvovittatus
Last Modified in 12/05/13
6696900002
[47] Allophryne ruthveni
Last Modified in 12/05/13
0707005002
[48] Amnirana albolabris
Last Modified in 12/05/13
5696901002
[49] Callulops kopsteini
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11575707002
[50] Astylosternus diadematus
Last Modified in 12/05/13
5707000002
[51] Aubria subsigillata
Last Modified in 12/05/13
10656500002
[52] Batrachophrynus
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17565602002
[53] Bufo granulosus
Last Modified in 12/05/13
1707004002
[54] Bufo viridis
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9626204002
[55] Cardioglossa cyaneospila
Last Modified in 12/05/13
8696601002
[56] Calyptocephalella gayi
Last Modified in 12/05/13
12616102002
[57] Ceratobatrachus guentheri
Last Modified in 12/05/13
3717101002
[58] Chacophrys pierottii
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10636302002
[59] Cyclorana australis
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14605902002
[60] Dendrosophus nanus
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17575701002
[61] Dyscophus
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23515101002
[62] Flectonotus fitzgeraldi
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11636301002
[63] Heleioporus eyeri
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18565601002
[64] Hemiphractus
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18565601002
[65] Hoplobatrachus occipitalis
Last Modified in 12/05/13
6696900002
[66] Hymenochirus boettgeri
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26454504002
[67] Isthmohyla rivularis
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15585802002
[68] Kassina senegalensis
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5707000002
[69] Limnodynastes dorsalis
Last Modified in 12/05/13
9656501002
[70] Odontophrynus americanus
Last Modified in 12/05/13
8656403002
[71] Opisthohylax immaculatus
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16595900002
[72] Osteopilus
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17585701002
[73] Physalaemus biligonigerus
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5696901002
[74] Pseudis paradoxa
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16585801002
[75] Pyxicephalus adspersus
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4707001002
[76] Rhinoderma darwinii
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10626203002
[77] Spea bombifrons
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17565602002
[78] Schoutedenella sylvatica
Last Modified in 12/05/13
9656501002
[79] †Thaumastosaurus sulcatus
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65101000002
[80] Triprion petasatus
Last Modified in 12/05/13
19545402002
[81] Xenopus laevis
Last Modified in 12/05/13
14585803002
[82] †Baurubatrachus pricei
Last Modified in 12/05/13
51242400002
[83] †Wawelia gerholdi
Last Modified in 12/05/13
669900002


Project views

type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
Total project views152
Project overview48
Matrix views21Matrix landing page (16 views); Phenotypic Dataset (5 views);
Media views27Media search (22 views); M307811 (5 views);
Specimen list14
Taxon list32
Bibliography4
Documents list6




Project downloads

type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
Total downloads from project10
Matrix downloads5Phenotypic Dataset (5 downloads);
Document downloads5Combined Dataset (TNT Format) (2 downloads); Combined Dataset (MrBayes Format) (3 downloads);