Project 954: Evans, S.E., J.R. Groenke, M.E.H. Jones, A.H. Turner, D.W. Krause. 2014. New material of Beelzebufo, a hyperossified frog (Amphibia: Anura) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. PLoS ONE. 9 (1).
Specimen: †Beelzebufo ampinga

Abstract

The extant anuran fauna of Madagascar is exceptionally rich and almost completely endemic. In recent years, many new species have been described and understanding of the history and relationships of this fauna has been greatly advanced by molecular studies, but very little is known of the fossil history of frogs on the island. Beelzebufo ampinga, the first named pre-Holocene frog from Madagascar, was described in 2008 on the basis of numerous disarticulated cranial and postcranial elements from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Maevarano Formation of Madagascar. These specimens documented the presence of a hyperossified taxon that differed strikingly from extant Malagasy frogs in its large size and heavy cranial exostosis. Here we describe and analyse new, articulated, and more complete material of the skull, vertebral column, and hind limb, as well as additional isolated elements discovered since 2008. μCT scans allow a detailed understanding of both internal and external morphology and permit a more accurate reconstruction. The new material shows Beelzebufo to have been even more bizarre than originally interpreted, with large posterolateral skull flanges and sculptured vertebral spine tables. The apparent absence of an external ear, the strong exostosis, and vertebral morphology suggest it may have burrowed during seasonally arid conditions, which have been interpreted for the Maevarano Formation from independent sedimentological and taphonomic evidence. New phylogenetic analyses, incorporating both morphological and molecular data, continue to place Beelzebufo with hyloid rather than ranoid frogs. Within Hyloidea, Beelzebufo still groups with the South American Ceratophryidae thus continuing to pose difficulties with both biogeographic interpretations and prior molecular divergence dates.


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Project DOI: 10.7934/P954, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P954
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 12 Documents
  • 83 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 75 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 6 MB

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Total scored cells: 5273
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 75
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 183
Total character states with associated media: 0
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MorphoBank Project 954

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    Alan Turner
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    Last logged in 01/29/14
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M2133' (83 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    [1] Alytes obstetricans
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0737302002
    [2] †Arariphrynus placidoi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    46292900002
    [3] Arthroleptis adolphifriederic
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0757500002
    [4] Bombina variegata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1737301002
    [5] Ceratophrys ornata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1727202002
    [6] Chiromantis rufescens
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1747400002
    [7] Conraua crassipes
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4717100002
    [8] †Cratia gracilis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    54212100002
    [9] Dermatonotus muelleri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0727203002
    [10] Discoglossus pictus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1737301002
    [11] †Eurycephalella alcinae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    49262600002
    [12] Gastrotheca gracilis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    28474700002
    [13] Guibemantis liber
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0757500002
    [14] Heleophryne natalensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1737301002
    [15] Hylarana albolabris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1747400002
    [16] Hyperolius kivuensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1747400002
    [17] Hypsiboas andinus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    6686801002
    [18] Lepidobatrachus laevis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1727202002
    [19] Leptodactylus ocellatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0747401002
    [20] Leptopelis christyi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1747400002
    [21] Litoria lesueurii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    17585800002
    [22] Megophrys nasuta
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8666601002
    [23] Melanophryniscus stelzneri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2707003002
    [24] Mixophyes schevilli
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2727201002
    [25] Nannophryne variegatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4676704002
    [26] Pelobates cultripes
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2727201002
    [27] Pelodytes punctatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1737301002
    [28] Phlyctimantis verrucosus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3727200002
    [29] Phrynobatrachus acutirostris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0757500002
    [30] Phrynomantis bifasciatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0696906002
    [31] Phyllomedusa sauvagii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1717103002
    [32] Platyplectrum ornatum
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2727201002
    [33] Pleurodema thaul
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0737302002
    [34] Pristimantis huicundo
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1727202002
    [35] Ptychadena mascareniensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0747401002
    [36] Rana temporaria
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2737300002
    [37] Scaphiopus couchii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2717102002
    [38] Scinax jolyi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5696901002
    [39] Sooglossus sechellensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8666601002
    [40] Telmatobius scrocchii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2727201002
    [41] Telmatobufo venustus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2727201002
    [42] Thoropa miliaris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11636301002
    [43] †Beelzebufo ampinga
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    54212100002
    [44] †Uberabatrachus carvalhoi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    50252500002
    [45] Afrana angolensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7686800002
    [46] Afrixalus fulvovittatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    6696900002
    [47] Allophryne ruthveni
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    0707005002
    [48] Amnirana albolabris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5696901002
    [49] Callulops kopsteini
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11575707002
    [50] Astylosternus diadematus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5707000002
    [51] Aubria subsigillata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10656500002
    [52] Batrachophrynus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    17565602002
    [53] Bufo granulosus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1707004002
    [54] Bufo viridis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9626204002
    [55] Cardioglossa cyaneospila
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8696601002
    [56] Calyptocephalella gayi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    12616102002
    [57] Ceratobatrachus guentheri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3717101002
    [58] Chacophrys pierottii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10636302002
    [59] Cyclorana australis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    14605902002
    [60] Dendrosophus nanus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    17575701002
    [61] Dyscophus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    23515101002
    [62] Flectonotus fitzgeraldi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11636301002
    [63] Heleioporus eyeri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    18565601002
    [64] Hemiphractus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    18565601002
    [65] Hoplobatrachus occipitalis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    6696900002
    [66] Hymenochirus boettgeri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    26454504002
    [67] Isthmohyla rivularis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    15585802002
    [68] Kassina senegalensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5707000002
    [69] Limnodynastes dorsalis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9656501002
    [70] Odontophrynus americanus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8656403002
    [71] Opisthohylax immaculatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    16595900002
    [72] Osteopilus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    17585701002
    [73] Physalaemus biligonigerus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5696901002
    [74] Pseudis paradoxa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    16585801002
    [75] Pyxicephalus adspersus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4707001002
    [76] Rhinoderma darwinii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10626203002
    [77] Spea bombifrons
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    17565602002
    [78] Schoutedenella sylvatica
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9656501002
    [79] †Thaumastosaurus sulcatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    65101000002
    [80] Triprion petasatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    19545402002
    [81] Xenopus laevis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    14585803002
    [82] †Baurubatrachus pricei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    51242400002
    [83] †Wawelia gerholdi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    669900002


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views2044
    Project overview264
    Matrix views170Matrix landing page (159 views); Phenotypic Dataset (11 views);
    Media views377Media search (328 views); M307811 (49 views);
    Specimen list161
    Taxon list870
    Bibliography65
    Documents list137




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project25
    Matrix downloads15Phenotypic Dataset (15 downloads);
    Document downloads10Combined Dataset (TNT Format) (6 downloads); Combined Dataset (MrBayes Format) (4 downloads);